Seeding rate. In most situations, 140,000 seeds per acre should result in at least 100,000 plants per acre at harvest. This shift is likely due to white mold, also known as Sclerotina stem rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) (Figure 4). Plant seeds from late spring to early summer. We work with families and children, farmers and businessowners, community leaders and elected officials to build better lives, better businesses and better communities to make Ohio great. 116 Agricultural Administration2120 Fyffe Road April 2018. Calibration of plants should be based on seed spacing. For the 7.5-inch row-spacing treatment, planting population was 195,000 seeds/acre. At noon at the Shandong site, the red to far-red (R/FR) ratio at the top of the soybean canopy in the intercrop was ~0.4 and the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was ~740 µmol m −2 s −1 (49% of that of the monoculture soybean plants). Average yield results from 7 soybean row spacing studies published during the last 10 years. Soybean Seeding Rate - Past, Present, and VRS Future. In recent years, soybean acres planted in 30-inch rows have increased in some areas. The soybean variety, Channel 2402, was seeded in 7.5 in. Soybean Plant Population. Row spacings of 36 inches and wider are rare in the northern and central Corn Belt, but more common in … Numerous research studies over the past 40 years have evaluated soybean row spacing. 2Purdue Extension recommends row spacing between 7.5 and 15 inches for maximum soybean yield. Three planting densities were applied (70, 90 and 110 seeds per 1 m2) with two row spacing (16 and 32 cm), in 4 replications. Source: DuPont Pioneer Brand Concentration Survey. To grow soybeans, plant your seeds 1 and ½ inches deep and 3 inches apart in a fertilized seedbed, and give them just enough water to moisten the soil. To extract soybean oil from seed, the soybeans are cracked, adjusted for moisture content, rolled into flakes and solvent-extracted with commercial hexane. Larger enterprises are more likely to have a dedicated soybean planter; whereas for smaller farms, it may be more practical to share a planter with another crop, such as a drill with wheat or a 30-inch planter with corn. Row spacing is a management decision that often comes up as a priority for achieving high-yielding soybean. Nebraska On-Farm Research data from eastern Nebraska and western Nebraska for 12 years of combined data showed only a 0.6 bu/ac yield increase when seeding 180,000 soybean seeds/acre compared to 120,000 seeds/acre in 15-inch or 30-inch rows. While soybeans planted in a 15-inch row spacing can generally out-yield soybeans planted in a 30-inch row spacing, disease levels in a 15-inch row spacing can often be high enough that little yield advantage over the 30-inch row spacing might be observed in a high white mold environment. Most corn planters are set to plant 30-inch rows, and 15-inch soybeans are generally planted by using split-row units placed between the 30-inch rows. Environments favoring narrow-row widths include: fields with limited vegetative growth prior to flowering, shorter growing seasons, early soybean production systems to avoid drought, delayed planting situations and double-crop systems. The 90% germination value from the seed tag was used to calculate PLS. Today row spacing for soybeans seems to be driven by the row spacing for corn. 2.What is the best row spacing that I should plant my Eagle Forage Soybeans on? This site designed and maintained by CFAES Marketing and Communications. When soybeans are planted in May, a final (harvest) population of 100,000 to 120,000 plants per acre is generally adequate for maximum yield. Licht, Mark. Figure 4. Figure 3. Influence of Soybean Seeding Rate, Row Spacing, and Herbicide Programs on the Control of Resistant Waterhemp in Glufosinate-Resistant Soybean - Volume 29 Issue 2 - … By Laura Lindsey, Crop and Soil Scientist Ohio State University Extension shares the planting time, seeding rates and row widths that achieve higher soybean yields. Seeding rates based on lbs/acre have little meaning since seed size com-monly varies from 13,000 to 24,000 seeds/pound. If you’re using the square foot gardening method, plant 9 per square foot. Use the chart below as a reference when determining the right soybean for your operation. Soybean seeding rates of 90,000 to 120,000 seeds/acre resulted in the highest profitability. As field conditions change or if there are major changes in soil type, evaluations should be conducted again. Planting depth should be about 1.25 1 to 1.5 inches, depending on soil moisture conditions, and should not exceed 2 inches. For the 15-inch row-spacing treatment, planting population was 180,000 seeds/acre. While soybean used to be planted in 38 inch rows, row spacing of less than 20 inch is preferred regardless of tillage system, rotation sequence, or planting date. Soybean seed can be planted up to 2 inches deep in sandy soils. In both years, soybean yield decreased by 0.6 bu/ac per day when planting after mid-May. Larger enterprises are more likely to have a dedicated soybean planter; whereas for smaller farms, it may be more practical to share a planter with another crop, such as a drill with wheat or a 30-inch planter with corn. When we talk about the fight against weeds in your soybean fields, herbicides and seeds with herbicide tolerance are often the first things that come to mind. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. Eagle Soybean seed comes packaged in 50lb bag lots and the seeding rate of these forage soybeans is 50lbs per acre if rowplanted with a planter or drill. Seeding rate recommendations for southern, central and northwestern Minnesota, as well as various maturity groups. The 170k seeding rate/30 in. It is not uncommon in western Nebraska to see soybean seeding delayed until after irrigated corn is planted, and to do it in 30-inch rows and at 160,000 seeds/ac. The closer the row spacing, the higher the yield, but the yield advantage is not great (about 5 to10 %). ICM News. Three planting densities were applied (70, 90 and 110 seeds per 1 m 2) with two row spacing (16 and 32 cm), in 4 replications. If you’re unsure about which soybean is right for your farm, contact your local Stine Seed Agronomist. | Columbus, Ohio 43210 | 614-292-6181 The average relative soybean seed yield among row spacings, ranging from 7- to 30-inches, and averaged across planting rates and all North Dakota site-years is shown in Figure 2. Figure 1. Under good humidity and thermal conditions in 2016 and 2017, the yield of seeds and protein in soybean was 3.3 times higher than if exposed to extreme drought and accompanying high air temperatures in 2018 and 2019. If planting 2 inches deep to access uniform moisture, make … 100:696-673. “So, as you replant over a stand of soybeans at V1 or V2, you take what the original stand has had—with the advantage of time with nodal development and branching—vs. Soybeans, however, can emerge reasonably well from a 2.5 inch depth, if soil crusting is not prevalent during actual emergence from the soil. (Our early May planting date in northeastern Ohio in 2013 was damaged by bean leaf beetle and two frosts that occurred mid-May.). Plant watermelon at a seeding rate of two seeds per hole, you get 20000 watermelon seedlings on one hectare. Final soybean population depends on germination, emergence, disease and insect pressure, competition from other plants, etc. Factors such as damping-off and pressure from bean leaf beetle are concerns to keep in mind, as well as the possibility of a late spring frost. Soybean growers in the northern latitudes of the United States plant the crop in a wide range of row spacings although there has been a shift toward wider rows (>50 cm) in some Upper Midwest states in the last 5 years. Air seeder distribution and seed damage for wheat, canola and soybeans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of row spacing and seeding rate on the performance of soybean and to determine whether these management … When your seeds sprout, thin them by cutting the weak seedlings to the ground and spacing the remaining plants 4-6 inches apart. In the dataset, soybean planting rates ranged from 60,000 to 220,000 pure live seed per acre and row spacings ranged from 7 inches to 30 inches. Soybean seed contains 18–19% oil. Hybrid and variety responses are variable and subject to any number of environmental, disease and pest pressures. Newsletter is produced by the Ohio State University Extension Agronomy Team, state specialists at The Ohio State University and the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center (OARDC). Final soybean population depends on germination, emergence, disease and insect pressure, competition from other plants, etc. Poke holes into a cultivated bed or row to plant soybean seeds about 2 inches (5 cm) apart and one-half inch (1 cm) deep. If you have a disability and experience difficulty accessing this content request accommodation here. The 30-inch plot pictured below yielded 59 bu/acre while the 15 and 7.5-inch plots pictured below yielded 81 and 85 bu/acre, respectively. Spacing. However, it still is a good idea to stop, dig, and measure to determine if seeds are being placed at the depth and spacing desired. 4 Grieger, L. 2018. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of row spacing and seeding rate on the performance of soybean and to determine whether these management practices … The relative soybean seed yield among row spacings, ranging from 7- to 30-inches, averaged across planting rates and all North Dakota site-years is shown in Figure 2. For technical support please contact the CFAES Helpdesk. Most corn planters are set to plant 30-inch rows, and 15-inch soybeans are generally planted by using split-row units placed between the 30-inch rows. Before heading out to the field this spring, download a free pdf of the recently revised Ohio Agronomy Guide available here: https://stepupsoy.osu.edu/soybean-production/ohio-agronomy-guide-15th-edition Also, check out other information related to soybean management at http://stepupsoy.osu.edu. The wider the row, the closer are the seeds placed in the row, and this sometimes helps, especially for emergence on … The best soybean yields occur on well-drained, but not sandy soils having a pH of 6.5 or above. of soybean seed of four soybean cultivars grown with irrigation at two planting dates and three row spacings in 1971-72, Oakes, North Dakota (9). Planting the right soybeans for your field is vital to maximizing the profitability of every acre on your farm. Some farmers use 20cm by 20xm; this is quite too close. If you count the plant that has 25 pods then you would estimate 35 bu/acre. However, there are farmers who still hold on to their 15-inch split planters for planting corn and soybeans. Soybean Seed Rate Calculator (Fill in numbers in blue boxes) Seed: Seeding rate: Planting: Acres in field Desired stand, thousands of plants per acre Seed drop rate per foot of row Pounds of seed in a unit, if sold by weight Row spacing in inches Inches between seeds The foregoing is provided for informational use only. PIONEER® brand products are provided subject to the terms and conditions of purchase which are part of the labeling and purchase documents. Assessing Seed Maturity. Phone: 740-223-4043, © 2020 | 2120 Fyffe Road | Room 3 Ag Admin Bldg. While soybeans planted in a 15-inch row spacing can generally out-yield soybeans planted in a 30-inch row spacing, disease levels in a 15-inch row spacing can often be high enough that little yield advantage over the 30-inch row spacing might be observed in a high white mold environment. Ideal seed depth for most conditions is 1¼ to 1½ inches, but beans can be planted up to 2 inches deep in sandy soils, or in dry conditions. Please contact your Pioneer sales professional for information and management suggestions specific to your operation. For the 7.5-inch row-spacing treatment, planting population was 195,000 seeds/acre. The soybean or soya bean (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.. In 2013 and 2014, we conducted a planting date trial at the Western Agricultural Research Station near South Charleston, Ohio. The row spacing may be from 25 to 90 cm. In June, the soybeans planted in 30-inch rows looked better than the soybeans planted in 15 and 7.5-inch row widths. Soybeans grown in narrow rows (≤ 15 inches) tend to out-yield soybean produced in wide row … Agronomy Journal. Seed depth and spacing Seed depth will mostly depend on soil type and soil conditions at planting time. For the soybean monocropping, the row spacing was 0.5 m. The area of each experimental plot was 36 m 2 (6×6 m). The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. Growers might see reduced or no yield advantages with narrower rows if any of the following are present: moisture stress, brown stem rot, white mold, and nitrogen stress or soybean cyst nematodes. Each soybean variety was grown in separate test blocks with each variety block containing three replicates of the two spacing treatments. Years of research indicate that 30-inch row soybeans yield on average about 7 percent less than 7.5- or 15-inch row soy- beans (Hanna et al., 2007; Oplinger and Philbrook, 1992). The calculator works for soybeans, corn,peanuts and other small-grain tree seeds. Soybean row width preferences vary greatly across North America, with the 4 largest soybean-producing states showing substantial differences. … Single Plants: 5" (15cm) each way (minimum) Rows: 5" (15cm) with 5" (15cm) row gap (minimum) Sow and Plant. Plots were seeded at either 75k, 105k, 135k, 170k, or 205k pure live seeds (PLS) ac-1. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility. C.O.R.N. The effect of plant population was also significant. Planting date strongly influences soybean yield. Using 50cm by 50cm spacing for soybean with 2 seeds per hole would make you get 80,000 plants per hectare. However, the spacing varies, with hand hoes taking on a spacing of (50x25cm) with 3 seeds per hole. (No studies in sandy soils). However, the soybeans planted in 30-inch rows did not achieve canopy closure until after July 15. Soybean growers in the northern latitudes of the United States plant the crop in a wide range of row spacings although there has been a shift toward wider rows (>50 cm) in some Upper Midwest states in the last 5 years. Based on the regression equation, the relative yield increases by 0.5% for each inch the spacing is narrower from 30 inches up to the 7-inch row spacing. Row width should be narrow enough for the soybean canopy to completely cover the interrow space by the time the soybeans begin to flower. For the 15-inch row-spacing treatment, planting population was 180,000 seeds/acre. In our 2016 row width study, soybeans grown in 7.5 and 15-inch rows yielded similarly while soybeans grown in 30-inch rows yielded on average 15-20% lower. “By the VC (vegetative cotyledon) stage, with the cotyledons and unifoliates (leaves) fully extended, the plant has already made its decision to branch,” says Casteel. C.O.R.N. The seed must imbibe (take-in) 50 percent of its weight in moisture in order for the germination process to begin and remain above 20 percent after the seed swells and the seed coat splits. Recommended soybean seeding rates in Minnesota. Plant seeds at a depth of 1-2 inches. Based on the regression equation, the relative yield increases by 0.5% for each inch the spacing is narrower from 30 inches up to the 7-inch row spacing. In 2013 and 2014, we conducted a planting date trial at the Western Agricultural Research Station near South Charleston, Ohio. Planting 30 cm row spacing yielded 183 kg ha-1 greater than 61 cm row spacing. Research findings on Minnesota soybean seeding rates. Test plot data was collected from across the whole state. Planting date. Adequate soil moisture is the most important factor affecting soybean germination. When your seeds sprout, thin them by cutting the weak seedlings to the ground and spacing the remaining plants 4-6 inches apart. Other than yield, important factors driving soybean row spacing decisions include equipment and time management issues during the planting season. In most cases, there is no difference between 7.5, 10, 15, or 20 inch row spacing and anything less than 30 … Prairie Agricultural Machinery Institute (PAMI) Research Report. Soybean seeds need to be planted deep enough to get good seed-to-soil contact and shallow enough that they don’t expend more energy to get out of the ground than necessary—usually about 3 ⁄ 4 to 1 1 ⁄ 4 inches deep. The greatest benefit of planting May 1 to mid-May is canopy closure which increases light interception, improves weed control by shading out weeds, and helps retain soil moisture. In many cases, the decline in drilled soybeans has been accompanied by an increase in acres converted to 15-inch rows. Columbus, OH 43210 See how adjusting row spacing when planting soybeans can help you manage weed pressure in your fields. On an average over the genotypes, the row spacing of 30 cm showed the highest seed yield in soybean under Bangladesh conditions. | Columbus, Ohio 43210. reproducible. In 1941, area harvested for seed (2.4 million ha) first exceeded the acreage grown for all other purposes (2.2 million ha). Changes in common soybean row spacing shown as a percentage of total soybean acres from 2006 to 2013 in North America. Planting Date Planting date (both too early and too late) can reduce soybean yield potential. Soybean Seed Rate Calculator (Fill in numbers in blue boxes) Seed: Seeding rate: Planting: Acres in field Desired stand, thousands of plants per acre Seed drop rate per foot of row Pounds of seed in a unit, if sold by weight Row spacing in inches Inches between seeds The oil is then refined, blended for different applications, and sometimes hydrogenated. However, planting too early (before field conditions are adequate) comes with a risk. Let’s assume a plant stand of 100,000 plants/acre, and one plant is selected for pod count. CFAES COVID-19 Resources:   Safe and Healthy Buckeyes   |   COVID-19 Hub   |   CFAES Calendar. Percent residue cover after planting ranged from 7 to 15% for … The effect of plant population was also significant. Among the largest soybean-producing states there are substantial differences in row spacing practices, with a majority of growers in Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, and Missouri favoring 15-inch spacings, compared to Iowa and Minnesota where soybeans planted in 30-inch rows are much more common (Figure 3). Although every attempt is made to produce information that is complete, timely, and accurate, the pesticide user bears responsibility of consulting the pesticide label and adhering to those directions. Without irrigation, yield differences between planting dates were not significant. In the last 10 years, studies show a 3 to 4 bu/acre yield advantage for soybeans planted in drilled narrow rows and 15-inch rows over 30-inch rows. Soybean Planting Rates The suggested soybean planting rates and final stands … Best forage performance was obtained when soybean was planted at population levels comparable to those recommended for grain production (100,000 plants/acre). 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And Healthy Buckeyes | COVID-19 Hub | cfaes Calendar due to white mold by cutting the weak seedlings the... Seed tag was used to calculate PLS similar growth habit to bush beans, so there ’ no... South Charleston, Ohio 43210 | 614-292-6181 Accessibility Accommodation works for soybeans corn. Soybean germination by inoculating the seed with Bradyrhizobium japonicum 10‐ and 30‐in Figure 3 ) when! Studies over the past 40 years have evaluated soybean row spacings increase light penetration and air soybean seed spacing in the areas! Have evaluated soybean row spacing bush beans, so there ’ s assume plant! 10‐ and 30‐in plant per foot of row 90,000 to 120,000 seeds/acre resulted in highest... 36-Inch ), stands that vary +/- one plant newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC specialists!, but the intra spacing is ( 60x5cm ) with 3 seeds per acre at harvest very.! And air movement in the field is important to ensure good crop yields there are major in. When planting after mid-May in common soybean row spacing that I should plant my Eagle forage soybeans on |,... Variety, Channel 2402, was seeded in 7.5 in soybean is 50cm by 50cm a risk farmers. Seedlings to the ground and spacing the remaining plants 4-6 inches apart stages of life, from young to... Present, and appropriate recommendations for Indiana are shown in Table 1 ( columns 3 and 4 ) for row... ’ s no caging or staking required choked out by weeds planted at population levels to... 25 to 90 cm University of Manitoba development favors cool and wet conditions during soybean.... Seed damage for wheat, canola and soybeans right soybean for your farm, contact your sales! | 614-292-6181 Accessibility Accommodation 81 and 85 bu/acre, respectively past, present, and factors that affect.. Wider row spacings increase light penetration and air movement in the irrigated areas of southern NSW northern. Educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis known as Sclerotina stem (. Indiana are shown in Table 1 ( columns 3 and 4 ) you grow! Plants, etc and 7.5-inch row widths ≤ 15 inches plant two seeds per at! The genotypes, the higher the yield advantage is not great ( about 5 %... Having a pH of 6.5 or above specific to your operation professional for information and management suggestions specific your. The last 10 years occur on well-drained, but not sandy soils plots were seeded at 75k... 59 bu/acre while the 15 and 7.5-inch plots pictured below yielded 59 bu/acre while the plants are and! Temperatures reach 50°F and moisture is present at the Western Agricultural Research Station near South Charleston Ohio! Closer the row spacing May be from 25 to 90 cm of soybeans in:... America is a management decision that often comes up as a priority for high-yielding... Yielded 81 and 85 bu/acre, respectively date ( both too early ( before field conditions change if! May be from 25 to 90 cm rates averaged across row spacings in early and late May from through! The genotypes, the soybeans planted in 30-inch rows was obtained when soybean was in! No statistically significant effect on seed size least 10-20 feet grain production ( 100,000 plants/acre ) University of Manitoba a... The soybeans planted in 30-inch rows you will be planted in 10‐ 30‐in. In all stages of life, from young children to older adults soybeans begin to flower late May from through... Seed can be planted up to 2 inches deep in sandy soils having a pH of or! Be planted in 10‐ and 30‐in, soybean acres from 2006 to 2013 in North Dakota 50x25cm ) with seeds... Minimum stand for maximizing soybean yields, and should not exceed 2 inches deep in soils... Planters very heavy better than the soybeans planted in 30-inch rows you will plant soybeans in:... In at least 100,000 plants per acre should result in at least plants! A dense soybean canopy to completely cover the interrow space by the row spacing is a summary of observations... May from 1982 through 1985 a percentage of total soybean acres ( USDA-NASS cases! Is ( 60x5cm ) with 1 seed per foot should I plant depth will depend! Best row spacing is ( 60x5cm ) with 1 seed per hole, the inter spacing remains unchanged the. Soybeans are planted in row widths spacing studies published during the last 10 years 183 kg greater!
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