Nutrient deficiencies have also been seen in dogs and cats fed “natural,” “organic,” or “vegetarian” diets produced by owners with good intentions. If you have problems viewing PDF files, download the latest version of Adobe Reader. Which of the following factors might compromise the quality of colostrum? Salmonella - a bacterium that is the second most common cause of bacterial food poisoning in humans. If these are not successful, nutritional support intervention may be necessary. However, any condition that alters the intestinal microflora, such as antibiotic therapy, may result in vitamin K deficiency. Production of less desirable fermentation products can be minimized by using a moderately fermentable fiber source; examples include beet pulp, inulin, and psyllium. Water is the most important nutrient; a lack of water can lead to death in a matter of days. The dietary requirement for protein in healthy adult dogs is satisfied when the dog’s metabolic need for amino acids and nitrogen is satisfied. Transient DM occurs in ~20% of diabetic cats, and these cats go into spontaneous remission usually within 1–4 mo after starting therapy for DM. Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a .gov or .mil site by inspecting your browser’s address (or “location”) bar. Kittens with iodine deficiency show signs of hyperthyroidism in the early stages, with increased excitability, followed later by hypothyroidism and lethargy. Plugs, crystals, and stones are more common in cats eating dry diets, due to … Cats with steatitis should be fed diets restricted in polyunsaturated fatty acids (monounsaturated and saturated fats are permitted) and given vitamin E supplementation at 10–20 mg, bid for 5–7 days. Nonetheless, some diabetic cats may have concurrent diseases for which the dietary management takes precedent. Excessive consumption of liver can lead to hypervitaminosis A and may produce skeletal lesions, including deforming cervical spondylosis, ankylosis of vertebrae and large joints, osseocartilagenous hyperplasia, osteoporosis, inhibited collagen synthesis, decreased chrondrogenesis in growth plates of growing dogs, and narrowed intervertebral foramina. Struvite stones are more common in females than males. However, protein-restricted diets should be used with caution, because some of these dogs also have aminoaciduria and carnitinuria. However, it does not measure a large portion of insoluble dietary fiber, nor any of the soluble dietary fiber. Only protein, fat, and carbohydrate provide energy; vitamins, minerals, and water do not. Longterm goals are to maintain ideal body condition score. (Also see Canine Parvovirus.). Unlike dogs, cats cannot readily convert linoleic to arachidonic acid, which must be obtained from animal sources. Adipose tissue was long considered metabolically inert, and its primary role in disease was attributed to stress on the joints caused by increased weight bearing and increased workload on the heart. Carbohydrates can become conditionally essential when energy needs are high, such as during growth, gestation, and lactation. The usual management of cachexia is to feed smaller amounts of a more calorically dense (ie, higher fat content), complete and balanced diet more frequently (3–6 meals/day). Regardless of the formula used, the calculated caloric intake is only a starting point and may require modification based on response. In this case, daily maintenance fluid requirements in mL should equal the animal’s MER in kcal of ME. Not all probiotics are created equal—a probiotic effective in one species may be ineffective in another. Highly fermentable fibers are rapidly metabolized by intestinal bacteria and produce large amounts of gas that can result in cramping and diarrhea. Dietary sodium restriction is classified as mild (400 mg sodium/100 g diet dry matter) to severe (240 mg sodium/100 g diet dry matter). Feed may be inadequate due to overgrazing, drought, poor quality or digestibility or expense. Feeding a canned-food diet and encouraging water intake, eg, with water fountains, are safe and simple ways to dilute urine. In cats, carbohydrates apparently are not essential in the diet when ample protein and fats supply glucogenic amino acids and glycerol. Parvovirus enteritis is most common in puppies 6–24 wk old. Because fat can add considerably more calories to a finished diet, the amount of protein relative to energy must be balanced appropriately to the life stage and typical intakes expected for an animal’s size and needs. 2005 Aug;64(3 ... the metabolic syndrome and other chronic diseases. However, it is now known that adipose tissue is not inert, but rather a major endocrine organ that produces hormones and protein factors and signals called adipokines. Optimal diets for growing puppies should contain a minimum of 22% protein as dry matter (AAFCO guidelines) or 45 g protein/1,000 kcal ME for puppies 4–14 wk old and 35 g protein/1,000 kcal ME for puppies >14 wk old (NRC guidelines). To reduce the incidence of acidosis, use a warm-up feeding period, introducing high-concentrate feeds gradually over three to four weeks. Raw meat products may contain pathogens. . The rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate by use of both dietary omega-3 fatty acids and antioxidants were additive. Diagnosis can be confirmed in the early stages by giving 100–250 mg thiamine, PO or IM, bid for several days. Protein is required to increase and renew the nitrogenous components of the body. Ten amino acids are essential in the diet of dogs: arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine. Steatitis (pansteatitis, yellow fat disease) is seen most often in kittens fed exclusively large amounts of unsaturated fatty acids, oily fish such as tuna or mackerel (packed in oil not water), diets that do not have an appropriate balance of antioxidants relative to polyunsaturated fats, or diets that have gone rancid. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - PO Box 8126, Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126 - Toll-free: 1-888-205-2311 Normal birth weight of kittens is 90–100 g. The growth rate is exceptionally rapid for the first 3–4 mo, and kittens gain 50–100 g/wk. The diet of choice is a commercial food to which vitamin E (α-tocopherol) or other antioxidants have been added. FOS are nondigestible oligosaccharides consisting of chains of fructose molecules. When the cat is treated for DM and hyperglycemia is controlled, the glucose toxicity interfering with pancreatic islet cell function is removed. Hence, given all the possible etiologies and limited diagnostics available, any animal suspected of having an adverse reaction to food should undergo a food trial. Find. Often, there is a history of feeding a diet composed almost entirely of meat, liver, fish, or poultry. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are necessary to support normal cell division, and treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency usually requires parenteral administration of vitamin B12. Skeletal demineralization, particularly of the pelvis and vertebral bodies, develops with calcium deficiency. ... For more Animal, Earth, Life, Vegan Food, Health, and Recipe content published daily, subscribe to the One Green Planet Newsletter! A deficiency in any of … Indiscriminate mineral supplementation should be avoided because of the likelihood of causing a mineral imbalance. However, two breeds of dogs, Dalmatians and English Bulldogs, are predisposed to developing urate uroliths without overt liver dysfunction. Fish is not a novel option for most cats, and there is a possible, but yet unclear, relationship between adverse food reactions in cats fed foods containing scombroid fish and histamine content. Further details regard- ing cattle, swine, poultry, and dogs and cats are given in other articles in the Yearbook. In addition, research in dogs is also showing that higher protein levels than what are typically used in most therapeutic renal diets is beneficial as long as the diets are phosphorus restricted. Constipation results from impaired peristalsis or increased water absorption from the large intestine. Carnitine supplementation is also beneficial. In addition, more dietary options are available for enteral support than for parenteral support. The objective of dietary management in renal failure is to lessen the metabolic demands on the kidneys and to diminish metabolic end-products that cannot be readily excreted. Diseases of the small intestine and pancreas often lead to a vague clinical syndrome characterized by weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea (with or without steatorrhea), and changes in appetite. Formulas for daily maintenance energy requirements (kcal/day) are listed in {blank} Daily Maintenance Energy Requirements for Dogs and Cats. Feline hepatic lipidosis is the most common liver disease in cats. If giving treats is an important owner-pet interaction, providing the owner with low-calorie treat options is important. Dietary management varies depending on the specific mineral composition of the urolith; however, regardless of composition, diluting the urine is important. Cats have a dietary requirement for an additional amino acid, taurine. In general, as the fat content of a diet increases, so does the caloric density and palatability, which promotes excess calorie consumption and obesity. Iron or copper deficiency (or both) is the major cause of hypochromic, microcytic anemia. We examine the major outbreaks of the past two centuries . It is advisable to take a stepwise approach to reintroduction of calories, and multiple small meals are often tolerated better than large meals. The National Research Council (NRC) also publishes nutrient profiles for dogs and cats for various life stages, most recently in 2006 (see Table: 2006 NRC Nutrient Requirements for Adult Dogs (Maintenance) a and see Table: 2006 NRC Nutrient Requirements for Kittens After Weaning a). Chocolate contains theobromine and much smaller amounts of caffeine, both of which are methylxanthines. Animals with the same body weight can have 3-fold variation in daily kcal requirements, which are affected by age, neutering status, physiologic status (growth, gestation, lactation, etc), physical activity, environmental temperature, and any underlying abnormalities. Treatment for obesity should include both short- and longterm goals. Heart to Heart: Optimal Nutrition for Animals with Heart Disease Nutrition is an important part of the treatment for dogs and cats with heart disease. Dietary recommendations may vary depending on where the diarrhea is localized and the underlying cause. Newer research has also shown the benefits of antioxidants in the management of CKD in dogs. Probiotic bacteria provide many of the same benefits to the host as prebiotics. Energy-dense, high-protein diets, such as critical care diets, are usually selected for cats without encephalopathy. Most treats are not complete and balanced, so they should be restricted to <10% of the total caloric intake to avoid causing nutrient imbalances. Any recommendations for kcal requirements are only starting points and may need to be modified based on the response of the individual dog or cat. Limited evidence exists for the recommendations of dietary mineral requirements for cats in {blank} 2006 NRC Nutrient Requirements for Adult Cats (Maintenance) a and {blank} 2006 NRC Nutrient Requirements for Kittens After Weaning a; many are based on the mineral content of successfully fed diets. If the animal is underweight, the food intake should be increased or the caloric content of the diet increased. Food reactions are classified using specific terminology. It can lead to diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Iodine Deficiency (Goiter). 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